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The systems movement in agriculture. In a similar vein, systems simulations can be conducted for at least four distinctly different purposes Rykiel,each of which demands slightly different methods of conduct.
There is also a variety of methods within agro-ecological approaches to agriculture. A fourth domain of work, associated with management aids to decision making, has also been included in this diagram, with indications of two sources of its origin.
This ambiguity reflects the argument that endeavours such as expert systems, operations research, systems dynamics and decision support systems are more accurately regarded as systematic procedures rather than systemic ones Jackson, A key aspect of that argument relates to the typical lack of explicit recognition of emer- gent properties in any of this work, while the notions of boundary and of environmental embeddedness are also often less than clearly articulated.
It must be emphasized that the typology of systems approaches illustrated here Arcadian microarray technologies has Arcadian microarray technologies characteristics! What are shown as simple linear connections and causal pathways are in reality much more interconnected and non-linear than they appear.
Moreover, there are also many interconnections which are not shown here but 8 R. Bawden which are significant as part of a complicated network of influences right across the whole map. Finally, the clear distinctions between different endeavours that are illustrated in the model are, in practice, much more indistinct, including as they do the relationships between the generation of theories relevant to systemics and their application in practice.
The intention at this point is not to further explore the details of the distinctions between all of the different methods and methodologies that have been recognized. Rather, the schema has been introduced to give an indication of the relationships that exist between First, Second and Third Order Systemics and proto-systemics while also illustrating how systemic organization can be brought to the many aspects of systems approaches to agricultural and rural development.
Kitchener suggests that different levels of cognitive processing allow individuals to monitor, evaluate and potentially transform one level of cognitive tasks at another.
Epistemic cognition is thus essentially a reflexive focus on worldview perspectives. The implication of the very deliberate congruence between this model of cognitive processing and the three orders of systemics being proposed within the context of the redesign of animal agriculture is that there is a vital need to provide opportunities for the different systemic orders to be reflexively monitored, evaluated and transformed as a prerequisite of the systemic transformation of animal agriculture.
And this in turn is congruent with the notion of a threedimensional learning or researching system. In this manner the three-level model of cognitive processing is thus transformed into a three-level hierarchy of a researching system-of-systems in which each level is contextualized and profoundly influenced by the next higher system.
This emphasis on the significance of worldviews is certainly consistent with the claims of the cognitive psychologist KoltkoRivera that, in addition to defining what goals can be sought in life, a worldview also defines what goals should be pursued.
As he further elaborates, worldviews involve sets of beliefs about what does and what does not exist either in actuality or in principlewhat assumptions are held, what value judgements are made about the goodness or badness of objects or experiences, and what objectives, behaviours, and relationships are deemed desirable or undesirable.
And as he finally posits, worldviews also define what can be known or done in the world, and how it can be known or done. A Systemic Perspective These are all matters that are entirely relevant to the criteria that were articulated earlier with respect to the redesign of an animal agriculture that is comprehensive in its embrace.
To borrow from philosophy and cognitive psychology, redesigning animal agriculture from a systemic perspective will necessarily involve the redesign of the composite ontological beliefs about reality and being in the worldaxiological assumptions about what is good, virtuous, beautiful, etc.
Thus, in this context it is not a matter of whether ecosystems actually exist as self-organizing, cybernetically regulated, dynamic equilibrium-seeking entities, but the emergent impacts that these ontological beliefs have on the activities of those who hold to them.
Similarly, it is not a matter of whether human beings are intrinsically good or evil, extravagant or mean spirited, virtuous or otherwise, but the influence that the particular axiological assumptions that are held under any particular circumstance have on behaviours.
And finally, it is not a matter of whether objective, empirically generated, and experimentally validated scientific knowledge is the only form of truth, but the impact that that epistemological belief has on the way people accept and use knowledge in their everyday affairs.
The relevance of the work of Kitchener in this context is that we are indeed capable of clarifying the nature and details of our worldviews and of appreciating their impact on our behaviours, through focused attention on epistemic cognition.
This is, however, not a trivial task for, as Salner submits, it involves the uncommon activities of thinking about, and evaluating, the very foundations of thought itself. In the present context, this implies that unless we sustainably engage with, and commit ourselves critically to, Third Order Systemics it is highly unlikely that our efforts at First Order and Second Order Systemics will be much different from the non-systemic, essentially mechanistic approaches that have prevailed to this point.
Such a commitment, Salner would argue, is often a very demanding developmental process that involves persistent experiential, intellectual and moral confrontation for any development to be achieved in our worldview perspectives: Yet this emphasis on epistemic development and worldview transformation is of fundamental significance, and both Kitchener and Salner draw heavily on the intellectual and moral development theories of Perry in support of their respective theses.
In other words, in response to the constant pressures of the intellectual and moral challenges that they were forced to confront over the years of their study, these young people essentially changed key features 10 R.
Bawden of their worldviews in what was carefully observed to be an almost invariant sequence. The characteristics of the final stage contextual relativism were in almost direct opposition to those of the initial one: There was also a much greater recognition of the need for interaction and participative discourse and engagement with others, as well as with issues, as essential to the process of the generation of knowledge and truth.
Importantly, Perry saw the interim multiplicity stages of development between dualism and contextual relativism as periods of significant intellectual and social confusion, with students often showing a strong tendency to revert to dualistic worldviews and to reject authority, rather than either persist with the confusions of multiplicity or move on to explore the more comfortable but much more complex state of contextual relativism.
At the stage of multiplicity, truth was most likely to be seen to reside within the self, rather than either the external world, or in the dialectical interactions between the self and that external world.
She points out that the results of all of these studies into cognitive development seem to agree on four essential propositions: With regard to this last proposition, Colby and Kohlberg have made the important point that the nature of the hierarchy is additive rather than purely transformational, and, as West points out, this means that the insights from earlier stages are included within new structures although they may be used differently.
There also seems to be general agreement that epistemic development is associated with both an increasing complexity in the structure of what we are calling worldviews here, and an associated capacity to deal with complex situations.
This, of course, has immediate relevance to the nexus between epistemic development and the development of systemic competencies: From such a perspective it makes sense to now recast the task of redesigning animal agriculture as an initiative in systemic development that embraces the need to extend the criteria for improvement in agriculture way beyond the mere efficiency and effectiveness of livestock systems.
This shift in focus has two essential features: So too, it is argued, must be concerns for human health and community well-being, for social acceptance, and for environmental sustainability.
This last matter alone provides a substantial epistemic challenge, not the least because it is a quintessentially contestable concept that, as Thompson opines, combines questions about what it is that could be made to persist, with what it is that should be allowed to do so.Inc.
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