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Literature and society Refinement of the French language At the beginning of the 17th century the full flowering of the Classical manner was still remote, but various signs of a tendency toward order, stability, and refinement can be seen.
A widespread desire for cultural self-improvement, which is also a sign of the pressures to conformity in a society constructing itself around the king and his court, is reflected in the numerous manuals of politesse, or formal politeness, that appeared through the first half of the century; while at the celebrated salon of Mme de Rambouillet men of letters, mostly of bourgeois origin, and the nobility and leaders of fashionable society mixed in an easy relationship to enjoy the pleasures of the mind.
Such gatherings did much to refine the literary language and also helped letters letter-writing and other intimate discourse theory prepare a cultured public that could engage in the serious analysis of moral and psychological problems. Its usual functions concerned the standardization of the French language.
Manners are stylized, settings are conventional, and the plot is highly contrived; but the sentiments of the characters are highly refined, and the psychology of their relationships is sharply analyzed.
Malherbe called for a simple, harmonious metre and a sober, almost prosaic vocabulary, pruned of poetic fancy.
His influence helped to make French lyric verse, for nearly two centuries, elegant and refined but lacking imaginative inspiration. He was the leader of a freethinking bohemia of young noblemen and men of letters, practising and preaching social and intellectual unorthodoxy.
His persecution, imprisonment, and early death ended all this: The development of drama Unlike the humanist playwrights of previous generations, Alexandre Hardy was first and foremost a man of the theatre.
In addition to writing tragedies, he developed the tragicomedy and the pastoral play, which became the most popular genres between and In the theatre as elsewhere, the pastoral was a refining influence, providing a vehicle for the subtle analysis of feeling.
Here the favourite theme of false appearances, the episodic structure, and devices such as the play within the play reflect the essentials of Baroque art. During the s a crucial struggle took place between this irregular type of drama and a simpler and more disciplined alternative.
Comedy gained a fresh impetus about But it was some time before Corneille, any more than his rivals, turned exclusively to tragedy. The emotional range Corneille achieves with his verse in The Cid is something previously unmatched. Contemporary audiences at once recognized the play as a masterpiece, but its form was subjected to an unprecedented critical attack.
In terms of form, the essence of Classical French tragedy is a single action, seized at crisis point. Chapelain was a major architect of Classicism in France. Tragicomedy lingered on as a popular alternative. By the s the mixture of modes was falling out of favour.
Writers and their public had become more responsive to various standardizing influences. The long struggle to produce a literature that could claim to represent the moral and cultural values of a homogeneous society occupied the whole of the first half of the century. His self-reliant heroes, meeting every challenge and overcoming every obstacle, are motivated by the self-conscious moral code that animated Cardinal de RetzMme de Longuevilleand other leaders of the heroic but futile resistance to Cardinal Mazarin.
Such optimistic, heroic attitudes may seem incompatible with a tragic view of the world; indeed, Corneille provides the key to his originality in substituting for the traditional Aristotelian emotions of pity and fear a new goal of admiration.
Corneille asks that his audience admire something larger than life, and the best of his plays are still capable of arousing this response. The heroic ideal The same appetite for heroic subject matter is reflected in the midcentury novels.
Such novels reflect the society of the time. They also show again what influenced the readers and playgoers of the Classical age: Other writers of the period make a more individual use of the novel form.
Cyrano de Bergerac returned to the Renaissance tradition of fictional travel as a vehicle for social and political satire and may be seen as an early exponent of science fiction.
Voyages to the Moon and the Sunthat neither work was published until afterthe year of his death. Paul Scarronan early practitioner of more realistic writing, was more down-to-earth in purpose and manner: The Maximes ; Maxims and Moral Reflectionshis principal achievement, is a collection of epigrammatic reflections on human behaviourexpressed in the most universal terms: However, even this is touched with cynicism.
He toured the provinces with his theatre troupe from about untilwhen they returned to Paris. The Hypocriteor Les Femmes savantes ; The Learned Ladiesthe comedy of manners merely provides a framework for the comic portrait of a central character, in which exaggeration and fantasy play a considerable part.
In Le Tartuffe, and in Dom Juantopical references and satiric implications were so provocative in dealing with the delicate subject of religious belief that there were strong reactions from churchmen.McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence.
The term refers to U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy and has its origins in the period in the United States known as the Second Red Scare, lasting from the late s through the s and characterized by heightened political repression as .
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LANGUAGE OF FLATTERY IN IRANIAN LETTER WRITING DISCOURSE Farahnaz RimaniNikou Islamic Azad University: Salams Branch IRAN These forms have been studied in personal letters concentrating on the letters written by common supposed to take proper conduct into account in other parts of the letter as well —for example, when.
This large-scale work is the application of modern theories of discourse analysis to questions of Greek grammar, especially with respect to the debate over the literary integrity of Philippians.
Chapter 1 introduces the linguistic theory of discourse analysis, defining key terms, sketching its historical evolution and outlining its major tenets. [AAA] Atlas of Ancient Archaeology, Jacquetta Hawkes (ed), Barnes and Nobles: [AAF] Answering a Fundamentalist, Albert J.
Nevins, M.M., Our Sunday Visitor. Welcome to the first of the new SHCY Commentary series, in which SHCY members provide written contributions on various academic topics pertaining to the history of childhood and youth.