The Rise of Monarchies: France, England, and Spain One of the most significant developments in the three centuries leading up to the Renaissance period was the collapse of feudalism.
On the eastern ruins of the empire a new kingdom, that of Germany, had emerged, stretching from Holstein in the north down to the Alps in the south, from Lorraine in the west up to the Elbe in the east.
The first Carolingian kings of Germany struggled for the survival of their fragile kingdom. Their power was challenged not only by foreign invaders, the Slavs, Magyars, and Vikings, but also by rival rulers of France, as well as by some domestic opponents.
In the last Carolingian offspring, Louis the Child —died and the German nobility elected Conrad, duke of Franconia, as their new king — Ottonian Dynasty After the victory over the Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld and successful intervention in Italy —Otto had established himself as undisputed ruler over vast territories in western and central Europe.
The new Roman Empire, ruled by the German emperor, had been founded. Its very title Holy Roman Empire derives from the fact that the act of the imperial coronation, performed by the supreme head of the Christian believers, the pope, was sacral in its character and hence also a sacral character of the imperial dignity and power.
The coronation of Otto was by no means an outstanding achievement: The papacy lacked both influence and power in those days and was largely subjugated to the goodwill of the German rulers. The latter introduced a series of Byzantine imperial ceremonies, which were adopted in the Ottonian court.
Just as his father before him, Otto II attempted to increase the imperial control over Italy. His invasion of Calabria ended with the defeat of his army by the Arabs in Otto III — spent much energy on consolidating the imperial influence in the east. He created the archbishopric of Gniezno and made Boleslas the Brave, duke of Poland, patrician.
The second campaign —14 resulted in his imperial coronation by the pope.
Following the third invasionthe imperial power over Italy was firmly established and new German officials were installed for ensuring the imperial control in the region. The warfare with Boleslas I, in which Henry was allied with the pagan Ljutizi, ended in the peace ofby which Henry gave up Bohemia.
Its first ruler was Conrad II —39elected by the German magnates after the death of Henry, despite some opposition that wished to have William III, duke of Aquitaine, crowned as a new king. After his imperial coronation on Easter his power was reasserted.
He now turned his attention to legal matters, codifying ancient Saxon customs. In he was victorious in his war against the rebellious Mieszko II, duke of Poland. With peace achieved, Mieszko surrendered all territories conquered by him and his predecessor from the empire. Burgundy was annexed to the empire, assuming the name kingdom of Arles.
Conrad and his heirs, Henry III r.
This led to frequent conflicts and an occasional revolt. Between and he appointed, one after another, four German bishops as popes, to make German control ubiquitous and to have the emperor as a dominant figure in church matters.
Although praised by some churchmen for his efforts to reform the papacy, Henry attracted fierce criticism from among more radical circles in Rome. In Hildebrand had decreed that no temporal ruler is authorized to install or depose the pope, who is to be chosen by a college of cardinals.
This may have marked the beginning of the Gregorian Reform, which indulged in a bitter struggle with the Crown known as the Investiture Controversy. The first blow delivered upon the emperor was his humiliation at Canossa Januarywith him excommunicated and his empire placed under the interdict.
By the concordat, Henry gave up his authority to invest bishops but kept his right to oversee and take part in the Episcopal elections. The weakness of the emperor was utilized by the German nobility, which elected Lothar of Supplinburg as their new king Lothar II —37putting an end to the Salian dynasty.
The first Italian expedition of did not produce any significant fruits, while the second campaign resulted in the reduction of Lombardy into a royal province and rebellion of the Milanese commune.
The fervent Pope Alexander III —81 and the king of Sicily backed the Italian city-states, while Frederick was supported by most of the German magnates and the antipopes. During his fourth Italian march —67 he seized Rome and only an outbreak of malaria, perceived as a divine punishment, forced him to retreat.
In Frederick led his fifth expedition and despite some agreement reached with the Lombard League, the war resumed, resulting in the imperial defeat in the Battle of Legnano May 29, After this, Frederick turned to diplomacy and the conflict ended with the Peace of Constance Along with Italian policy, Frederick paid attention to domestic matters.
He expanded the imperial domains by annexing lands of extinct German dynasties and seizing the properties of Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, in It was during his reign that the imperial chancery started using the adjective holy to denote the Roman Empire.
Frederick died on his way to the Holy Land leading the Third Crusade. Once home, Henry attempted to transform the empire into a hereditary monarchy ruled by the House of the Hohenstaufen.The Holy Roman Empire was a union of territories in Central Europe that centered on Germany, the reign of the Empire was from to The Holy Roman Empire originates in the eastern half of Charlemagne's empire.
The creation of the Empire was an attempt to revive the Western Roman Empire. National Monarchies and the Holy Roman Empire Essay Sample Two of the major governmental powers in the High Middle Ages were the national monarchies of the Western Europe countries and the Holy Roman Empire in the middle European state, especially Germany.
The rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire was a very big step in the Roman Empire. This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. and Islam.
Christianity was also related to Islam and Judaism because they all had a holy book and a single god. They also had the. Monarchy Essay For much of human history, monarchy in one for m or another was the primary system of government.
A monarchy is a type of tyrannical regime in which all or most political power is concentrated in the hands of a single ruler, the sovereign.
The Rise of Monarchies: France, England, and Spain One of the most significant developments in the three centuries leading up to the Renaissance period was the collapse of feudalism. This social and economic system had emerged during the ninth century in the Carolingian Empire (pronounced care-eh-LIN-jee-ehn), which was .
National Monarchies and the Holy Roman Empire Essay Sample Two of the major governmental powers in the High Middle Ages were the national monarchies of the Western Europe countries and the Holy Roman Empire in the middle European state, especially Germany.