Posted on November 30, by Scott Alexander [epistemic status: My bias is against the current college system doing much good. I have tried not to be bogged down by this bias, but take it into account when reading my interpretations below.
You might wonder if kids will work it out for themselves. After all, lots of smart people have managed to think logically without formal instruction in logic.
Moreover, studies show that kids become better learners when they are forced to explain how they solve problems. So maybe kids will discover principles of logic spontaneously, as they discuss their ideas with others.
But research hints at something else, too.
Perhaps the most effective way to foster critical thinking skills is to teach those skills. Abrami et al Studies suggest that students become remarkably better problem-solvers when we teach them to analyze analogies create categories and classify items appropriately identify relevant information construct and recognize valid deductive arguments test hypotheses recognize common reasoning fallacies distinguish between evidence and interpretations of evidence Do such lessons stifle creativity?
Critical thinking is about curiosity, flexibility, and keeping an open mind Quitadamo et al And, as Robert DeHaan has argued, creative problem solving depends on critical thinking skills DeHaan In fact, research suggests that explicit instruction in critical thinking may make kids smarter, more independent, and more creative.
Here are some examples--and some expert tips for teaching critical thinking to kids. Teaching critical thinking may boost inventiveness and raise IQ Richard Herrnstein and his colleagues gave over seventh graders explicit instruction in critical thinking--a program that covered hypothesis testing, basic logic, and the evaluation of complex arguments, inventiveness, decision making, and other topics.
The project was remarkably effective. Compared to students in a control group, the kids given critical thinking lessons made substantial and statistically significant improvements in language comprehension, inventive thinking, and even IQ Herrnstein et al Then they randomly assigned some students to receive critical thinking lessons as part of their biology curriculum.
Students in the experimental group were explicitly trained to recognize logical fallacies, analyze arguments, test hypotheses, and distinguish between evidence and the interpretation of evidence.
Students in a control group learned biology from the same textbook but got no special coaching in critical thinking.
At the end of the program, students were tested again. The students with critical thinking training showed greater improvement in their analytical skills, and not just for biology problems.
The kids trained in critical thinking also did a better job solving everyday problems Zohar et al Tips for teaching critical thinking: What should parents and teachers do?
The short answer is make the principles of rational and scientific thinking explicit. Philip Abrami and colleagues analyzed studies about teaching critical thinking.Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment.
The subject is complex, and several different definitions exist, which generally include the rational, skeptical, unbiased analysis, or evaluation of factual ph-vs.comal thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking. It presupposed assent to rigorous standards of.
Thinking About Content Content analysis of an argument is really just what it seems—looking closely at the content in an argument. When you’re analyzing an argument for content, you’re looking at things like claims, evidence to support those claims, and if that evidence makes sense. Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment. The subject is complex, and several different definitions exist, which generally include the rational, skeptical, unbiased analysis, or evaluation of factual ph-vs.comal thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking. It presupposed assent to rigorous standards of. A Foundation for The Logic of Teaching Richard Paul and Linda Elder March 22, The first and most important insight necessary for the appropriate design of instruction and curriculum is that content is, in the last analysis, nothing more nor less than a mode of thinking.
Thinking About Content Content analysis of an argument is really just what it seems—looking closely at the content in an argument. When you’re analyzing an argument for content, you’re looking at things like claims, evidence to support those claims, and if that evidence makes sense.
This innovative text uses concrete examples and hands-on exercises to help students clearly understand and apply the steps of the nursing process to today's rapidly changing healthcare environment.
References: Tips for teaching critical thinking to kids. Abrami PC, Bernard RM, Borokhovski E, Wadem A, Surkes M A, Tamim R, Zhang D. Instructional interventions affecting critical thinking skills and dispositions: a stage 1 meta-analysis.
A statement by Michael Scriven & Richard Paul, presented at the 8th Annual International Conference on Critical Thinking and Education Reform, Summer Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and.
Processes of critical and creative thinking Critical and creative thinking is an integrated skill that involves generating and choosing ideas around a core of knowledge. The idea generation and reflective judgment processes are .