Classical period[ edit ] Early animosity towards Jews[ edit ] Louis H. Feldman argues that "we must take issue with the communis sensus that the pagan writers are predominantly anti-Semitic". Feldman concedes that after Manetho "the picture usually painted is one of universal and virulent anti-Judaism".
Definitions of terrorism There is debate over the basic definition of the scope of cyberterrorism. There is variation in qualification by motivation, targets, methods, and centrality of computer use in the act. Depending on context, cyberterrorism may overlap considerably with cybercrimecyberwar or ordinary terrorism.
He states that "with today's attacks, you are clueless about who did it or when they will strike again. It's not cyber-war, but cyberterrorism. Many academics and researchers who specialize in terrorism studies suggest that cyberterrorism does not exist and is really a matter of hacking or information warfare.
If death or physical damage that could cause human harm is considered a necessary part of the cyberterrorism definition, then there have been few identifiable incidents of cyberterrorism, although there has been much policy research and public concern. Modern terrorism and political violence is not easily defined, however, and some scholars assert that it is now "unbounded" and not exclusively concerned with physical damage  There is an old saying that death or loss of property are the side products of terrorism, the main purpose of such incidents is to create terror in peoples' minds and harm bystanders.
If any incident in cyberspace can create terror, it may be rightly called cyberterrorism. For those affected by such acts, the fears of cyberterrorism are quite real.
Multiple organizations have created their own definitions, most of which are overly[ quantify ] broad. There is also controversy concerning overuse of the term, hyperbole in the media and by security vendors trying to sell "solutions".
An attack on an Internet business can be labeled[ by whom? Any form of cyberwarfare conducted by governments and states would be regulated and punishable under international law.
Or to intimidate any person in furtherance of such objectives. Army War College as early as This can include use of information technology to organize and execute attacks against networks, computer systems and telecommunications infrastructures, or for exchanging information or making threats electronically.
Examples are hacking into computer systems, introducing viruses to vulnerable networks, web site defacing, Denial-of-service attacksor terroristic threats made via electronic communication.
One area of debate is the difference between cyberterrorism and hacktivism. It becomes an issue because acts of violence on the computer can be labeled[ by whom? Types of cyberterror capability[ edit ] The following three levels of cyberterror capability are defined by Monterey group Simple-Unstructured: The capability to conduct basic hacks against individual systems using tools created by someone else.
The organization possesses little target analysis, command, and control, or learning capability. The capability to conduct more sophisticated attacks against multiple systems or networks and possibly, to modify or create basic hacking tools.
The organization possesses an elementary target analysis, command and control, and learning capability. The capability for a coordinated attack capable of causing mass-disruption against integrated, heterogeneous defenses including cryptography. Ability to create sophisticated hacking tools.
Highly capable target analysis, command, and control, and organization learning capability.
Many groups such as Anonymoususe tools such as denial-of-service attack to attack and censor groups who oppose them, creating many concerns for freedom and respect for differences of thought. Many believe that cyberterrorism is an extreme threat to countries' economies, and fear an attack could potentially lead to another Great Depression.
Several leaders agree that cyberterrorism has the highest percentage of threat over other possible attacks on U. Although natural disasters are considered a top threat and have proven to be devastating to people and land, there is ultimately little that can be done to prevent such events from happening.
Thus, the expectation is to focus more on preventative measures that will make Internet attacks impossible for execution. As the Internet continues to expand, and computer systems continue to be assigned increased responsibility while becoming more complex and interdependent, sabotage or terrorism via the Internet may become a more serious threat and is possibly one of the top 10 events to "end the human race.
They can be conducted remotely, anonymously, and relatively cheaply, and they do not require significant investment in weapons, explosive and personnel. The effects can be widespread and profound. Incidents of cyberterrorism are likely to increase.
They will be conducted through denial of service attacks, malware, and other methods that are difficult to envision today.The Digital Single Market strategy aims to open up digital opportunities for people and business and enhance Europe's position as a world leader in the digital economy.
30Dec06 - ONE IMPASSE TOO MANY?. by Alf Mendes It would seem that the US Administration is finally approaching its point-of-no-return in the Near/Mid-East region, due, in no small measure, to the arrogant stupidity of its global strategy in the region which .
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