Marx, Weber and Durkheim on Religion by Jeramy Townsley I wrote this essay in response to an exam question during my doctoral work in social theory in If you are a lazy student who uses the internet for your sources, at least inform yourself about copyright law and proper citation procedures for your field, for example American Psychological Association style. Marx, Weber and Durkheim on Religion Marx, Weber and Durkheim together comprise the historical core of the sociological tradition.
Confucianism and TaoismThe Religion of India: To illustrate his theory, Weber quotes the ethical writings of Benjamin Franklin: Remember, that time is money. He that can earn ten shillings a day by his labor, and goes abroad, or sits idle, one half of that day, though he spends but sixpence during his diversion or idleness, ought not to reckon that the only expense; he has really spent, or rather thrown away, five shillings besides.
Money can beget money, and its offspring can beget more, and so on. Five shillings turned is six, turned again is seven and threepence, and so on, till it becomes a hundred pounds.
The more there is of it, the more it produces every turning, so that the profits rise quicker and quicker. He that kills a breeding feline taint, destroys all her offspring to the thousandth generation.
He that murders a crown, destroys all that it might have produced, even scores of pounds. Weber notes that this is not a philosophy of mere greed, but a statement laden with moral language. Indeed, Franklin claims that God revealed the usefulness of virtue to him.
A common illustration is that of a cobbler, hunched over his work, who devotes his entire effort to the praise of God. To emphasize the work ethic in Protestantism relative to Catholics, he notes a common problem that industrialists face when employing precapitalist laborers: Agricultural entrepreneurs will try to encourage time spent harvesting by offering a higher wage, with the expectation that laborers will see time spent working as more valuable and so engage it longer.
However, in precapitalist societies this often results in laborers spending less time harvesting. Laborers judge that they can earn the same, while spending less time working and having more leisure.
He also notes that societies having more Protestants are those that have a more developed capitalist economy. To view the craft as an end in itself, or as a "calling" would serve this need well.
This attitude is well-noted in certain classes which have endured religious education, especially of a Pietist background.
In order that a manner of life well adapted to the peculiarities of the capitalism… could come to dominate others, it had to originate somewhere, and not in isolated individuals alone, but as a way of life common to the whole groups of man.
After defining the "spirit of capitalism," Weber argues that there are many reasons to find its origins in the religious ideas of the Reformation.
This recognition was not a goal in itself; rather they were a byproduct of other doctrines of faith that encouraged planning, hard work and self-denial in the pursuit of worldly riches. However, the Reformation had effectively removed such assurances.
From a psychological viewpoint, the average person had difficulty adjusting to this new worldview, and only the most devout believers or "religious geniuses" within Protestantism, such as Martin Lutherwere able to make this adjustment, according to Weber.
In the absence of such assurances from religious authority, Weber argued that Protestants began to look for other "signs" that they were saved. Calvin and his followers taught a doctrine of double predestinationin which from the beginning God chose some people for salvation and others for damnation.
It became an absolute duty to believe that one was chosen for salvation, and to dispel any doubt about that: Worldly success became one measure of that self-confidence. Weber had always detested Lutheranism for the servility it inspired toward the bureaucratic state.
When he discussed it in the Protestant Ethic, he used Lutheranism as the chief example of the unio mystica that contrasted sharply with the ascetic posture. According to the new Protestant religions, an individual was religiously compelled to follow a secular vocation German:The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism [Max Weber] on ph-vs.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
An abridged edition to include: The Problem - Religious Affiliation & Social Stratification - The Spirit of Capitalism - Luther's Conception of the Calling - Task of the Investigation - The Practical Ethics of the Ascetic Branches of /5().
In the Sixth Sunday of Easter falls on Mother’s Day.
Preachers must be aware of this reality, even if they do not choose to make much of it in their sermons and worship planning. The Diary of a Young Girl is a book based on the writings from a diary written by Anne Frank while she was in hiding for two years with her family during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands.
The Protestant Ethic spawned and encouraged what Weber called the "spirit of capitalism." By Weber's definition, this is more than simply capitalist activity. It is, in fact, the essence which underlies the economic system.
Max Weber: Max Weber, German sociologist and political economist best known for his thesis of the ‘Protestant ethic,’ relating Protestantism to capitalism, and for his ideas on bureaucracy. Learn about his life and works, his intellectual breadth, and his impact on the social sciences.
ELEANOR: A Spiritual Biography. By Harold Ivan Smith. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, Xi + pages. Eleanor Roosevelt not only was the longest serving First Lady, but perhaps except for Hillary Clinton, she is surely the most influential First Lady in American History.
That she was.